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In recent times there has been an increase in the number of bed bug infestations. Bed bugs are common all over the world and also have been found in Australia in small numbers. Recently they have become widespread with infestations increasing substantially in Victoria, and parts of the world, over the previous ten decades. .
The main reason behind the increase is supposed to be caused by insecticide resistance; modern bed bugs are resilient to many of those commonly used insecticides. Other contributing factors include the increase in world traveling with bed bugs being spread in luggage, shoes and clothing. Once acquired at turnover accommodation, the hitchhiking bed bugs could then be transported and brought back to the homes of guests in their own luggage.
Many hostels worldwide have now banned the usage of travellers own sleeping linen in shared accommodation as a security precaution against this pest.
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In ancient infestations, bed bugs are found around the seams, beading and folds of mattresses, sleeping bags and sheets. As the infestation spreads, the bugs proceed to any tiny crevices, which may be in bed heads, skirting boards, cracks in plaster and bedroom furniture. Because of their colour, mature bed bugs can easily be spotted with the naked eye on sheets and bedding, but very difficult to see on brown wooden floors and other black surfaces.
Heavily used hiding places are evident by black or brown stains of blood excrement or spotting. There may be an offensive sweet odour when bed bugs are numerous. This odour called buggy is similar to the odour when a stink bug is squashed. White eggs, the egg cases and moulted skin cubes may also be found near these areas, as well as living bed bugs. .
Bed bugs use pheromones to communicate. This method of communication and the release of alarm pheromones can make them quite difficult to deal with as bed bugs become awake and quickly vacate the region being treated if not previously properly quarantined.
Bed bugs can also spread into a new residence by traveling between multi-unit housing such as dormitories and apartment buildings. Once they find a host, bed bugs will feed and are likely to harbor in near proximity to the sufferer. In this case, new locations can quickly become infested with bed bugs in a brief amount of time. .
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Different people have varying reactions to the bites of bed bugs, depending on a number of variables. Some people have little or no reaction to the bite. In others the bite site can get red and intensely itchy. This can occur during the course of the night or might take up to develop.
The wheals may range from 2 cm to 5 cm in diameter with inflammation common. Anaphylactic shock could possibly occur in individuals which are allergic, although this is very rare. .
Discomfort and loss of sleep is common in the effects of bed bugs. Bites may be found on a variety of areas on the body. Another characteristic is that the bites are in orderly rows, unlike the random pattern of mosquitoes. The bed bug causes these rows being disturbed during feeding and having to pierce the skin to feed again.
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Bed bugs mainly feed on humans but may also feed on other mammals and poultry if necessary. Although they may carry diseases like hepatitis they're not known to transfer such diseases to individuals.
Mattress bug eggs' survival is also an issue. It's not uncommon for the live bed bugs amongst an infestation to be wholly eradicated during an effective treatment cycle, only to have the remaining or surviving eggs hatch and populate the exact location once again. The eggs can also have an incubation period up to two weeks and could be deposited in hidden areas that are difficult to deal with. .
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This stubborn tendency of bed bug infestations are created more problematic because of the now smaller size of this newly re-emerged mattress bug nymph. Once an infestation is discovered, all adjoining rooms need to be inspected and treated if additionally influenced.
This can be finished by the use of adhesive tape (if insect numbers are very little ) to trap the insect. Vacuuming can also be recommended before chemical treatment as it eliminates all dust and debris from the site of the infestation making it simpler for following chemical control to penetrate and in turn succeed.